SUBMISSION : Assignment four

Student number 514516     Nicola South

SUBMISSION

“A picture is worth a thousand words”

Write an essay of 1,000 words on an image of your choice.

The image can be anything you like, from a famous art photograph to a family snapshot, but please make sure that your chosen image has scope for you to make a rigorous and critical analysis. 

  • If you choose a well-known photograph, take time to research its context – the intentions of the photographer, why it was taken, whether it’s part of a series, etc. Add all this information into your essay to enable you to draw a conclusion from your own interpretation of the facts. 

It’s not enough to write an entirely descriptive or historical account of your chosen image. You must use the facts as a means to draw your own conclusions about what the picture means to you. You may wish to apply what you’ve learned in Part Four regarding translation, interpretation, connotation, signs, punctum, etc., but be sure you get the definitions correct.   

Follow thought associations and other images that relate to the discussion, directly or indirectly. Look at the broader context of the image and its background and specific narrative as well as your personal interpretation of it and what thoughts it triggers for you. Follow these associations in a thoughtful and formal way. Allow yourself to enjoy the process! You may write about personal connections but ensure you express yourself in a formally analytical and reflective manner. 

“A picture is worth a thousand words”

bourke-white_margaret_6_gandhi_india_1946_L_large (1)

Gandhi at the spinning wheel. Margaret Bourke-White (1946) (Gallery M, 2017)

Essay:

Who is the real subject Gandhi or the spinning wheel? 

The photograph was selected as I have a personal connection to it, having visited the exact spot it was photographed twice. This essay will deconstruct the image to uncover its meaning, as well as the intentions of the photographer. Much of the reality of an image can be redefined by a photographer so the truth of it may be “naive and illusory (for though the lens draws the subject, the photographer defines it)” (Szarkowski, 2009:12). It seems that “The relation between what we see and what we know is never settled” (Berger, 1972:7), however through analysing the formal contents and their contexts it will be possible to show the invisible meanings hidden within the image and expose whether it is the spinning wheel or Gandhi that is the subject of the photograph.

Translation

The signifiers (material elements) denoted in this photograph are: A spinning wheel, a seated bald or shaven man reading papers wearing a dhoti, floor rugs, a window and white walls. The frame is divided into two areas, the spinning wheel and the figure with the room behind it. The eye is drawn in by the prominently placed spinning wheel and led across diagonally to the top right of the image through the seated person up to the bottom of the window frame. The image is monochrome, grainy with strong contrast, though with a range of tones. The photograph is variously titled Gandhi at “his” spinning wheel or “the” spinning wheel, informing us both of the person’s identity and the foreground object.

Interpretation

So what do these objects connote (mean)? To move to this next level of meaning this it is vital to understand what Barthes terms the studium, the cultural, political and social meaning (Boothroyd, 2015) behind the photograph. There are four main contexts to explore, Gandhi, the spinning wheel, Bourke-White and their relationship to each other.

Gandhi (1869-1948) born in India, trained as a lawyer and developed a personal philosophy of anti-materialism and abstinence, living out his idea of truth force, powerful but non-violent argument (Von Tunzelmann, 2012). “Swaddled in just a shawl and a dhoti, with a long thin arm clutching a long thin staff, Mahatma Gandhi had quickly become the most recognisable symbol of anti-colonial protest” (Keay, 2010:484). He promoted the charka (domestic spinning wheel) as a symbol of penance, self-reliance and non-violence saying “We cannot visualise non-violence in the abstract. So we choose an object which can symbolise for us, the formless” (Gandhi, n,d, cited in: Tribuneindia.com 2017).

The American photographer (1904-1971) began her career photographing industrial architecture with “dramatic use of perspective, light, and shadow on hard-edged industrial shapes, to create photographs that merged fact with the potent language of abstraction” (Johnson et al., 2005:589). She became a renowned journalist for Fortune and Life magazines demonstrating “her singular ability to communicate the intensity of major world events while respecting formal relationships and aesthetic considerations” (Handy et al, 1999:209, cited in: International Center of Photography 2017). She used heavy lighting for industrial subjects which “was obvious in many of her portraits which often looked staged” (Jeffrey et al, 2008:102). Bourke-White photographed Gandhi as part of an assignment covering the prelude to the partition of India.

             Welding-tire-rims-International-Harvester-Chicago-IL-1933             stalin.jpg                      (Monroegallery.com, 2017)                      (Bourke-White, 2017)

The relationship she had with Gandhi is key to unlocking the signified (invisible meaning) in this image. She was described as becoming “a friend to – as well as a close chronicler” (Time, 2017a). She realised “to understand another human being you must gain some insight into the conditions which made him what he is” (Bourke-White, M, 2016:1746). Passionate about machines she notes “some of his opinions I found difficult to reconcile. One was his opposition to industry and scientific agriculture” (Bourke-White, 2016:3715). However she understood that spinning was completely bound up with his identity (Anon, 2017a).

When shooting she had to observe his rules, he disliked bright lights, be silent and learn to spin herself beforehand (Anon, 2017b). She shot unsuccessfully without flash, then her third and last attempt with flashbulb worked “In the end, she came away with an image that became Gandhi’s most enduring representation” (Iconic Photos, 2017), unusually without his staff and shawl. Curiously this image was not used in that May 1946 life article, but in a tribute to him following his assassination (1948) titled “India loses her great soul…a stirring visual eulogy to the man and his ideas” (Time, 2017b).

The context above reveals meaning in the image: the symbolism in the spinning wheel, the tidy room representing cleanliness and order, Gandhi reading newspapers signalling connections with the world, daylight alighting mystically on Gandhi’s head. The punctum that disrupts the rest of the narrative in the photograph is the spinning wheel; “Once we have discovered our punctum we become, irredeemably, active readers of the scene” (Clarke, 1997:32). Gandhi was a cunning man (Keay, 2010), but the vantage point was of Bourke-White’s choosing, “If the photographer could not move his subject, he could move his camera” (Szarkowski, 2009:126). She gave prominence to the spinning wheel, and interestingly a separation from Gandhi. Interpreting these actions enables us to find the signs and overall meaning of this image.

Conclusion

In any image “the primary frame of reference remains the subject of the photograph (although this in itself can be problematic)” (Clarke, 1997:30). Bourke–White herself admitted “only you would come with just that particular mental and emotional experience to perceive the just telling thing for that particular story” (Bourke-White, 1972:1756). We know “the photographer’s way of seeing is reflected in his choice of subject” (Berger, 1972:10); drawing on the visual gestalt- of the picture” (Shore, 2007:110), and the Intertextuality (background), I suggest the Spinning wheel is in fact the primary subject of this image. It is the wheel that provides the personal connection to other elements in the photograph, revealing its meaning. Whether Bourke-White was simply drawn to the industrial shape of the wheel and pursued her natural style by placing the shadow on it to give it dominance, or whether she intended to illuminate its symbolism, only she could tell us. Whichever, the power of this image to me is her photographing of the spinning wheel.

(1035 words)

References: 

Anon, (2017a). [online] Available at: http://100photos.time.com/photos/margaret-bourke-white-gandhi-spinning-whee [Accessed 4 Jul. 2017].

Anon, (2017b) Influential photographs: Ghandi at his spinning wheel 1946 by Margaret Bourke-White. [online] Available at: https://www.lomography.com/magazine/64710-influential-photographs-gandhi-at-his-spinning-wheel-1946-by-margaret-bourke-white [Accessed 28 Jun. 2017].

Berger, J (1972) Ways of seeing. London. Penguin group.

Boothroyd, S (2015) Context and narrative. Open College of the Arts. Barnsley.

Bourke-White, M. (2016). Portrait of Myself. Kindle edition. San Francisco, UNITED STATES: Lucknow Books.

Bourke-White, M. (2017). Margaret Bourke-White. [Photograph] [online]Foto-post.blogspot.co.uk. Available at: https://foto-post.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/margaret-bourke-white.html [Accessed 4 Jul. 2017].

Clarke, G. (1997). The photograph. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gallery M. (2017). Margaret Bourke-White | Biography. [online] Available at: https://www.gallerym.com/pages/margaret-bourke-white-biography [Accessed 28 Jun. 2017].

Gandhi (n, d) Cited in: Tribuneindia.com. (2017). The Tribune…Sunday Reading. [online] Available at: http://www.tribuneindia.com/1999/99aug15/sunday/head2.htm [Accessed 2 Jul. 2017

Handy et al (1999) Reflections in a Glass Eye: Works from the International Center of Photography Collection, New York: Bulfinch Press in association with the International Center of Photography. Cited in: International Center of Photography. (2017). Margaret Bourke-White. [online] Available at: https://www.icp.org/browse/archive/constituents/margaret-bourke-white?all/all/all/all/0 [Accessed 30 Jun. 2017].

Iconic Photos. (2017). Gandhi at the Spinning Wheel. [online] Available at: https://iconicphotos.org/2009/05/07/gandhi-at-the-spinning-wheel/ [Accessed 29 Jun. 2017].

Jeffrey, I. and Kozloff, M. (2008). How to read a photograph. London. Thames and Hudson Ltd.

Johnson, W., Rice, M., Williams, C. and Mulligan, T. (2005). A History of photography. Köln [etc.]: Taschen.

Keay, J. (2010). India. London: HarperPress.

Monroegallery.com. (2017). Master Photographers. Black and White Photojournalists. [Photograph] [Online] Available at: http://www.monroegallery.com/photographers/detail/id/1865 [Accessed 2 Jul. 2017].

Shore, S (2007).The nature of photographs. 2nd edition. London. Phaidon

Szarkowski, J. (2009). The photographer’s eye. The Museum of Modern art. New York.

Time.com. (2017a). Gandhi: Quiet Scenes From a Revolutionary Life. [online] Available at: http://time.com/3881206/gandhi-rare-photos-of-the-pioneer-of-nonviolent-civil-disobedience/?iid=sr-link9 [Accessed 30 Jun. 2017].

Time.com. (2017b). Gandhi and His Spinning Wheel: The Story Behind an Iconic Photo. [online] Available at: http://time.com/3639043/gandhi-and-his-spinning-wheel-the-story-behind-an-iconic-photo/ [Accessed 28 Jun. 2017].

Von Tunzelmann, A. (2012). Indian summer. The Secret History of the End of an Empire. Kindle edition. UK. Simon & Schuster ltd.

Bibliography

Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2156064/ [Accessed 2 Jul. 2017].

Barthes, R (n,d ) Camera Lucida in: La Grange, A (2013) Basic critical theory for photographers. Uk. Focal Press.

Barthes, R (n,d) Rhetoric of the lmage [online] Available at: https://faculty.georgetown.edu/irvinem/theory/Barthes-Rhetoric-of-the-image-ex.pdf (Accessed 2 Jiul.2017)

BBC News. (2017a). How Gandhi’s last day was photographed – BBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/world-us-canada-40435892/how-gandhi-s-last-day-was-photographed [Accessed 29 Jun. 2017].

BBC News. (2017b). Rare pictures of the last 10 years of Gandhi’s life – BBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-35259671 [Accessed 29 Jun. 2017].

Bourke-White, M. (2017). Margaret Bourke-White | ND Magazine. [online] Ndmagazine.net. Available at: http://ndmagazine.net/photographer/margaret-bourke-white/ [Accessed 2 Jul. 2017].

Golden, R. (2013). Masters of photography. London: Goodman.

Nehru, J. and Khilnani, S. (2004). The discovery of India. Penguin Books; London.

Time.com. (2017a). A New Way of Seeing Indian Independence and the Brutal ‘Great Migration’. [online] Available at: http://time.com/4421746/margaret-bourke-white-great-migration/?iid=sr-link4 [Accessed 30 Jun. 2017

Time.com. (2017b). See the Classic Cameras Used by LIFE’s First Female Staff Photographer. [online] Available at: http://time.com/4355162/margaret-bourke-white-cameras/ [Accessed 30 Jun. 2017].

Time.com. (2017c). ‘Great Lady With a Camera’: Margaret Bourke-White, American Original. [online] Available at: http://time.com/3735284/great-lady-with-a-camera-margaret-bourke-white-american-original/?iid=sr-link7 [Accessed 30 Jun. 2017].

Please note: Any images by other photographers used on this site are accredited and are being used for personal research and educational purposes only.

 

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Part four:Reading photographs Learning log

Assignment four: A picture is worth a thousand words

Preparation

Image:

Gandhi at the spinning wheel. Margaret Bourke-White (1946)

bourke-white_margaret_6_gandhi_india_1946_L_large (1)

(Gallery M, 2017)

Mind map of brainstorm of image:

mind map prep

Reference:

Gallery M. (2017). Margaret Bourke-White | Biography. [online] Available at: https://www.gallerym.com/pages/margaret-bourke-white-biography [Accessed 28 Jun. 2017].

Part Four: Reading photographs Learning log

Assignment 4: “A picture is worth a thousand words”

Background research

Gandhi:

gandhi spinning not MBW(Anon, 2017)

  • Born 1869 Mohandras Karamchand Ghandi
  • Middle class family in Gujarat (Westcoast of India).
  • Vaishya Hindu caste, known for being hard bargaining salesmen.
  • 19 years to London trained as a lawyer
  • South Africa, worked as lawyer, 1st experience of colonial racism, campaigned for equal rights for Indians in South Africa, “The Mahatma, whose twinkle of compassion concealed a steely-eyed cunning” (Keay,2010:486)
  • Personal philosophy that God is Truth and anti-materialistic and abstinence values (from Hinduism, Christianity and Jainism). Convinced that any type of physical pleasure was degrading and lived out his idea of “Truth force”, powerful but non-violent argument.
  • 1915 returned to India
  • Campaigned for Indian independence from British rule
  • Confronted the moral behaviour of society, wanted India to move away from western ideals of progress and technology back towards a simple village life. and wished to return India to “godliness, simplicity and humility” (Von Tunzelmann, 2012:27).
  • He was famous for his tactics of passive resistance, civil disobedience, logical non-violent argument. He associated pleasure with self-destruction and lived a life of self-denial and discomfort.
  • He lived modestly in a self-sufficient community wearing the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and political protest.
  • Adopted hand-spinning on a wooden wheel as a symbol of this simple life “Gandhi’s manner of dress and commitment to hand spinning were essential elements of his philosophy and politics. He chose the traditional loincloth as a rejection of Western culture and a symbolic identification with the poor of India” (Anon, 2017)
  • “Charkha was given a new meaning and novel interpretation by Mahatma Gandhi… To him spinning was like penance or sacrament, a medium for spiritual upliftment, a symbol of dharna, of self-help and self-reliance, of dignity of labour and human values. Besides, it was an emblem of non-violence” (Tribuneindia.com, 2017)
  • He was against industrialisation “Machinery in the past has made us dependent on England, and the only way we can rid ourselves of the dependence is to boycott all goods made by machinery. This is why we have made it the patriotic duty of every Indian to spin his own cotton and weave his own cloth.” (6(p48)(The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol 48 (September 1931–January 1932). Ahmedabad: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India; 1971.(anon2017)
  • Led non-violent protests, such as the 1930 salt marches and fasting to speed political agreements and end religious violence.
  • 1948 assassinated by a Hindi fanatic who thought Gandhi’s methods too passive and compromising

References:

Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2156064/ [Accessed 2 Jul. 2017].

Keay, J. (2010). India. London: HarperPress.

Nehru, J. and Khilnani, S. (2004). The discovery of India. Penguin Books; London.

Tribuneindia.com. (2017). The Tribune…Sunday Reading. [online] Available at: http://www.tribuneindia.com/1999/99aug15/sunday/head2.htm [Accessed 2 Jul. 2017

Von Tunzelmann, A. (2012). Indian summer. The Secret History of the End of an Empire. Kindle edition. UK. Simon & Schuster ltd.

Margaret Bourke-White                  

116091753.jpg      margaret_bourke-white13       Welding-tire-rims-International-Harvester-Chicago-IL-1933

(Time.com, 2017)        (Bourke-White, 2017)      (Monroegallery.com, 2017)

  • Born 1904 New York
  • Early career industrial advertising and portrait work in Cleveland, wanted to earn enough from architectural photos to pay for her experimental industrial photos. “Her stock trade was a form of modernism, strongly composed but visually simplistic” (Golden, 2013:36).
  • 1929-1936 Chief photographer Fortune business magazine, however 762 job offer from fortune “I was not the least bit interested in photographing political personages” (Bourke-White, 1972:762)
  • 1936-1969 Staff photographer Life magazine: Worldwide photojournalist, covered: most wars, witnessed German invasion of Moscow (1941), accompanied bombing missions (1942), liberations of concentration camps, unrest in South Africa, Gandhi’s fight for Indian independence
  • “The technical side of photography always interested her, and in her books there are many passages on cameras and lighting equipment” (Jeffrey and Kozloff, 2008:102)
  • “Bourke-White had an excellent sense of simple, poster-like design, and a sophisticated photographic technique, both perhaps the legacy of her apprenticeship in the demanding field of industrial reportage. She was excited by the new opportunities presented by photoflash bulbs, which made possible clear and highly detailed pictures under circumstances that would otherwise have been difficult or impossible for photography”. Bourke-White, M. (2017).
  • 1930s social documentary style
  • 1937 “You have seen their faces” book which documented the human aspects of the depression a Collaboration with writer Erskine Caldwell
  • Wrote books on places she’d worked on assignments (Germany, Soviet Union, Italy and India).
  • Autobiography “Portrait of myself” (Bourke-White, 1972)
  • 1957 contracted Parkinson’s and abandoned career
  • 1971 died

Interesting quotes from her biography:

  • “ a man is more than a figure to put into the background of a photograph for scale”…I was learning that to understand another human being you must gain some insight into the conditions which made him what it is” (Bourke-White, 1972:1746)
  • I was awakening to the need of probing and learning, discovering and interpreting. I realized that any photographer who tries to portray human beings in a penetrating way must put more heart and mind into his preparation than will ever show in any photograph” (Bourke-White, 1972:1756)

 References

Bourke-White, M. (2016). Portrait of Myself. Kindle edition. San Francisco, UNITED STATES: Lucknow Books.

Bourke-White, M. (2017). Margaret Bourke-White | ND Magazine. [online] Ndmagazine.net. Available at: http://ndmagazine.net/photographer/margaret-bourke-white/ [Accessed 2 Jul. 2017].

Golden, R. (2013). Masters of photography. London: Goodman.

Jeffrey, I. and Kozloff, M. (2008). How to read a photograph. London. Thames and Hudson Ltd.

Monroegallery.com. (2017). Master Photographers | Black and White Photojournalists. [online] Available at: http://www.monroegallery.com/photographers/detail/id/1865 [Accessed 2 Jul. 2017].

Bourke-White’s relationship with Gandhi

Her first assignment in India in 1946 for Life magazine was to cover the prelude to the partition of India; her stark photographs were taken in the aftermath of the riots, a “first-hand account of India’s struggle for independence in the late 1940s” (Johnson et al., 2005:591)

Then in 1948 post partition of India Bourke-White returned to capture more stories and photographs for Life magazine. “After the war, she documented the final years of Ghandi’s life, producing the iconic image of the proponent of non-violent protests with his spinning wheel” (Time.com, 2017a).

She was a friend to Gandhi:

It’s hardly surprising, really, that Bourke-White would be drawn to a figure like Gandhi…Gandhi’s emphasis on liberty and dignity in the face of brutal resistance and oppression spoke directly to her own passion for both justice and adventure”. (Time.com, 2017b)

She describes how she was with Gandhi during his last fast and how ten days later she was able to talk with him as he spun, “While frequently I did not agree with Gandhi’s point of view, talking with him helped me understand it” (Margaret Bourke-White, 2016:4015). She said “he was an extraordinary complex person, with many contradictions in his nature” (Bourke-White. 2016:3704)

References:

Johnson, W., Rice, M., Williams, C. and Mulligan, T. (2005). A History of photography. Köln [etc.]: Taschen.

Margaret Bourke-White. (2016). Portrait of Myself. Kindle edition. San Francisco, UNITED STATES: Lucknow Books.

Time.com. (2017a). See the Classic Cameras Used by LIFE’s First Female Staff Photographer. [online] Available at: http://time.com/4355162/margaret-bourke-white-cameras/ [Accessed 30 Jun. 2017].

Time.com. (2017b). Gandhi: Quiet Scenes From a Revolutionary Life. [online] Available at: http://time.com/3881206/gandhi-rare-photos-of-the-pioneer-of-nonviolent-civil-disobedience/?iid=sr-link9 [Accessed 30 Jun. 2017].

Please note: Any images by other photographers used on this site are accredited and are being used for personal research and educational purposes only.

 

 

 

Part four: Reading photographs Learning log

PREPARATIONS for ASSIGNMENT FOUR

A Picture is worth a thousand words

Choice of image

I reflected on which image I might choose for the assignment throughout the time I was completing the exercises and research.

The image that I initially thought that I would use was The damaged child (Dorothea Lange 1936).

I saw this at the Radical Eye exhibition that I’ve reviewed recently on my blog. The image itself haunts me; the obvious hardship and poverty etched on this child is clear, but what struck me was her steely stare and the inner strength and determination that I thought Lange had also captured. My personal link to this was the reminder it gave me of under privileged children that I encountered when teaching, who though possibly hungry and with difficult home lives seemed often to possess this inner strength for their own self-preservation. I was also interested in the back story as I know from an interview with Sir Elton John that Lange had written on the back of this print an alternative title “The damage is already done”.

damaged child.jpg

 (The Museum of Modern Art. 2017)

I also considered this image of Welsh Miners (Robert Frank 1953) taken in Caerau South Wales where he made a photographic story about a mining community, focusing on a miner and his family. I considered the fact that it was part of a series of 16 images and that when he travelled he sought to capture portraits of people that embodied a place as these miners do. I also thought that there was a strong narrative within this photograph alone, with the bright whites of the miners eyes contrasting with their blackened faces and their smiles disguising what must have been their weariness. I also felt some affinity with the subject having visited old mines in South Wales and spoken to men that have worked in them.

Robert-Frank-3.jpg

 (Anatomy Films, 2017) 

I also seriously considered this image “Shop in Rupert Street Soho” (1953) by Cas Oorthuys which first struck me when I saw it at the exhibition Strange and familiar at the Barbican Gallery London in 2016. I remember finding the context interesting, as I spent a lot of time photographing street markets in different contexts/locations and I was attracted by the vantage point he used, which I have tried since myself. I also thought that this would be interesting to research as generally Oorthuy’s approach was as a commercial photographer, pragmatic and objective and yet there is a narrative in her London photographs.

market stockings.jpg

(Strange and Familiar: Britain as Revealed by International Photographers, 2017)

 The last image that I considered was London 1958-9 by Sergio Larrain. It is the perspective, the blurred slight movement of the man in the foreground that appeals me to this image. Having travelled on the underground frequently as a commuter I could smell the people, remember the old wooden escalators and appreciate the depth of this image. Many of his images in this series he captures from dynamic angles with abrupt framing and often ground level viewpoints and blurred subjects; I wondered was this because of the subject matter, or if was this present in most of his work, especially when he gave professional photography up at a relatively young age (ten years after this photo), to have more peace and time. Could he have found a calmer way to photograph?

GB. ENGLAND. London. Baker Street underground station. 1958-1959.

 (Pinterest, 2017)

Finally and thankfully I stumbled again upon a photograph that I do really feel passionate about, Margaret Bourke White’s “Ghandi and his spinning wheel” (Margaret Bourke-White 1946).

My passion for this photograph comes from an affinity that I have with India, having travelled around the country many many times; but more specifically that I have visited the exact location that she took this portrait in twice, most recently March this year. I remember reading in the museum text at this past residence of Ghandi’s how Margaret Bourke- White had executed the photograph, and thought it would be interesting to see if the documentation available outside supports this information. It is a very poignant photograph as Ghandi was assassinated only two year later yards from this room, having been with the same photographer talking that very day. I have a good understanding of the subject of the photograph from my travels and previous reading and yet I know very little about the photographer. So I decided that I had a good basis to begin my reading of the photograph. Passion and interest and it would be very interesting to apply my new learning on reading photographs to this photograph.

bourke-white_margaret_6_gandhi_india_1946_L_large (1)

 (Gallery M, 2017)

References:

Anatomy Films. (2017). Robert Frank – A Different View. [online] Available at: http://www.anatomyfilms.com/robert-frank-different-view/ [Accessed 27 Jun. 2017].

Gallery M. (2017). Margaret Bourke-White | Biography. [online] Available at: https://www.gallerym.com/pages/margaret-bourke-white-biography [Accessed 28 Jun. 2017].

Pinterest. (2017). 1950s. [online] Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/AU1bXADwnIQG6nl_8HIdeA9ts7ybGL_4cxDTIzk5t4hIOXcV9C5Cz1Y/ [Accessed 27 Jun. 2017].

Strange and Familiar: Britain as Revealed by International Photographers. (2017). Strange and Familiar: Britain as Revealed by International Photographers | Cas Oorthuys. [online] Available at: http://www.barbican.org.uk/strangeaudio/photographs/cas-oorthuys/ [Accessed 27 Jun. 2017].

The Museum of Modern Art. (2017). Dorothea Lange. Damaged Child, Shacktown, Elm Grove, Oklahoma. 1936 | MoMA. [online] Available at: https://www.moma.org/collection/works/56493 [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].

Please note: Any images by other photographers used on this site are accredited and are being used for personal research and educational purposes only.