COURSEWORK: PART FIVE CONSTRUCTED REALITIES AND THE FABRICATED IMAGE

Research point 1 

Look up the work of Gregory Crewdson online. Watch this YouTube video about Gregory Crewdson and his work and consider the questions below.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7CvoTtus34&feature=youtu.be [accessed 24/02/14]

  • Do you think there is more to this work than aesthetic beauty?

Yes. Crewdson says himself that though it is most important to make a beautiful picture, but that ascetic alone is not enough, “it needs to have an undercurrent of something dangerous or fearful” (Youtube.com, 2017). His pictures are not beautiful to me, but they are certainly interesting and whilst some would find them beautiful many would not; I do think that most would find them interesting and perplexing and possibly disturbing.

  • Do you think Crewdson succeeds in making his work ‘psychological’? What does this mean?

           Yes his work is definitely psychological. It sets out to interest you in the uncanny, the dark side, invites you to consider the “disturbance” in the image and to make sense of it. As Iles says “His genius is to insert that highly charged strange anxiety a sense of a moment having just irrupted or something disturbing about to take place.” (Youtube.com, 2017). The psychological for Crewdson is ordinary life but with a disturbance beneath the perfect order, an undercurrent of the dangerous or fearful, combined with emptiness and loneliness.

  • What is your main goal when making pictures? Do you think there’s anything wrong with making beauty your main goal? Why or why not?

I don’t think I know currently what my main goal is in making pictures; it used to be ascetic, pattern, shape, balance, proportion, colour, however I do feel that there needs to be more now. Quite what my “more” is I’m not sure right now.

Notes from the interview:

Chrissie Iles (Curator, Whitney museum of American Art)

  • He has shifted the language of photography, interest in the uncanny and the psychoanalytical made evident.
  • He takes on the mechanics of the cinema.
  • His work is never a single image but collaged from different shots.
  • Elaborate sophisticated rich unique and thought through.
  • He is interested in the dark side, concerned with creating uncanny moments.
  • He “came of age” in the early 90s when dramatic psychological became important for artists, giving artists permission to explore the psychological within photography in a theatrical cinematic sense.
  • He’s a complex person, good at working with a team, warm, open interested though interested in the dark side in a psychological complexities.
  • His father was a psychoanalyst, he used to listen into his father working, was very influenced him.
  • Inspired by Diane Arbus, the Paintings of Edward harper – deals in the American vernacular, ordinary, an emptiness.
  • Photos of Walker Evans interested in the ordinary life, indigenous architecture
  • His genius is to insert that highly charged strange anxiety a sense of a moment having just irrupted or something disturbing about to take place.
  • If you could freeze a moment in your dream and go into it in minute detail.

 Crewdson:

  • Most important is to make a beautiful picture, but just purely aesthetic is not good enough, it needs to have an undercurrent of something dangerous or fearful.
  • Early in career shot from the perspective of the aerial crane.
  • Twilight was the first work that put everything together, cinematic lighting in a choreographed way, which was a huge shift in the work, telling the story through light and colour.
  • He drives around scouting for ordinary nondescript locations, until he finds something that’s seems right and responds to something in the architecture.
  • In his work tries to create the ordinary but pointing to what exists beneath the surface, beneath the perfect façade.
  • Creates stories, Likes to project emptiness and loneliness with a quiet tone but on the scale of the operatic.
  • Likes to feel connected to the characters private moments.

Reference:

Youtube.com. (2017). YouTube. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7CvoTtus34&feature=youtu.be [accessed 24/02/14] [Accessed 10 Jul. 2017].

Link to my exhibition visit to The Cathedral of the Pines: https://nkssite2.wordpress.com/category/cathedral-of-the-pines/

LEARNING LOG: Thames Valley OCA Meeting

Thames Valley OCA Photography group meeting 15th July 2017

Though I joined this group a few months ago due to my 2 centre living and travelling, this was the first meeting that I’d been able to attend.

It was good to meet with other OCA photographer, including one that has recently completed their degree as well as a tutor. We were able to share projects that we were working on, mainly through prints, and invite critical comments from the group. There was also a discussion about the body of work that some of the members are working on. For my part the timing for sharing was difficult as I had just completed assignment four and not begun the coursework and research for assignment five, although I did share some initial ideas and had some photographers’ work suggested to me to review.

It will definitely be worthwhile support group and add to my learning journey so I intend to attend monthly when I am able.

Part four: Reading photographs Assignment 4 draft

Student number: 514516      Nicola South

A Picture is worth a thousand words

REFLECTIONS AGAINST ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Demonstration of technical and visual skills:

  • I spent much time reading around the technical, and semantic terms it was necessary to understand for this assignment- I believe that I understand them and have demonstrated this.
  • I tested my visual awareness and observational skills when learning how to read photographs and when reading my chosen photograph.
  • I would guess that the compositional skill needed in this assignment are in the pulling together all of these thoughts and material in a coherent manner
  • I am sure that I should continue to read widely to broaden my knowledge of these areas
  • It will be very interesting to use these enhanced skills when I visit my next exhibition. I am sure the exhibition notes that I wrote in this part of my coursework would have been much shaper if I’d viewed it before working through this section of the course.

Quality of outcome: 

  • I hope the content is both broad and relevant.
  • I believe I have applied the learning from the exercises and coursework whilst shaping and writing the essay and been discerning in my choice of material.
  • I trust that I have communicated my concepts clearly.

Demonstration of creativity

  • My imagination was needed both when choosing the photograph for the assignment and when reading the photograph, as ultimately there are assumptions to be made.
  • I believe that my interpretation of the photograph was original and unique and this was shaped from thinking laterally around the evidence and being imaginative.
  • I hope that my Personal voice is beginning to show in my analysis of the photograph.

Context:

  • I spent a lot of time researching the background before I began to draft the essay and have published a summary this research on my learning log.
  • I believe that the critical thinking and reflection that I did on this image shows in my analysis of the photograph.
  • I did talk to others about the image, non- photographers which was useful, however it may have also been useful to talk to my peers about my ideas. I have just joined an OCA photography group who meet monthly and this will add to my reflective process.

 

 

 

 

Part four: Reading photographs Book Review

Book review: The Photographer’s eye. John Szarkowski.

I am reading this book at the point where I am studying how to read photographs which seems extremely pertinent. So I rather than a standard book review this is a summary of my learning in relation to this.

Szarkowski sets out his intention for his book as “an investigation of what photographs look like, and of why they look that way” (Szarkowski, 2009).

I found it interesting how he makes clear that photography invaded the territory of art, could not work to old standards and had to find its own ways of making its meaning clear. Photography was invented by scientists and painters but the professional photographers it produced were varied in their skills and had increased vastly by the early twentieth century. There was a deluge of pictures, describing new things and in new ways, most especially the ordinary. Photographers learned from other photographers and photographs.

Szarkowski lists five issues he believes are inherent in photography and organises his selected images in these groups:

  • The thing itself: That the photographer deals with reality, though much of the reality can be filtered out by the photographer and as the photographer makes choices. He points out that our faith in the truth of the camera may be “naive and illusory …for though the lens draws the subject, the photographer defines it”. (Szarkowski, 2009).
  • The detail: The photographer could only record as he found it and had to “force that facts to tell the truth” (Szarkowski, 2009). He could however fragment details as well as put the details into a narrative. I hadn’t realised myself that the rise of photography freed painters from having to paint narrative stories. The images he chose for this section show a variety of significant detail and symbols, though these images I think could have equally have been placed in his groups of the thing itself.
  • The frame: Szarkowski considers that the central act of photography is the choosing and eliminating, which “forces a concentration on the picture edge…and on the shapes that are created by it” (Szarkowski, 2009). The frame he explains, edits meaning and patterns. Interestingly he poses the question whether painters’ use of the frame creatively was born from photography. Here the images that he chooses to illustrate seem to ideally do this, such as Henri Cartier-Bresson’s “Callejon of the Valencia Arena” 1933:
  • W1siZiIsIjE0NDM3MyJdLFsicCIsImNvbnZlcnQiLCItcmVzaXplIDIwMDB4MjAwMFx1MDAzZSJdXQ.jpg

  (The Museum of Modern Art, 2017)

  • Time: All photographs are time exposures, some shorter some longer, catching slices of time and movement. Szarkowski, helpfully explains that the new beauty of “seeing the momentary patterning lines and shapes that had previously been concealed within the flux of movement” (Szarkowski, 2009) as decisive moments not as dramatic climaxes but as visual ones. Many of the images that he shows here show time blurred such as Rene Groebli’s Nude dressing (1952) which was a new image to me.

rene-groebli-nude-dressing-1952

 (Curiator, 2017)

  • Vantage point: He points out that it is photography which has taught us to see from different vantage points, challenging our notions of reality. So pictures can reveal the clarity and the obscurity of things. He also suggests that this has influenced modern painters. The images he has in this section of his book illustrate this well such as Clarence John Laughlin’s The fierce eyed building (1938).

fierce eyed building.jpg

 (Harvardartmuseums.org, 2017)

Szarkowski has certainly set out his idea of what photographs look like, and why they look that way.

My learning points:

  • I have discovered another way to read photographs, to look at The thing, the detail, the frame, the time, the vantage point; have any of these influenced the photographer more than the other and how?

References

Curiator. (2017). Nude dressing by René Groebli. [online] Available at: https://curiator.com/art/rene-groebli/nude-dressing [Accessed 25 Jun. 2017]

Harvardartmuseums.org. (2017). From the Harvard Art Museums’ collections The Fierce-Eyed Building. [online] Available at: http://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/155284 [Accessed 25 Jun. 2017].

Szarkowski, J. (2009). The photographer’s eye. The Museum of Modern art. New York.

The Museum of Modern Art. (2017). Henri Cartier-Bresson. Callejón of the Valencia Arena. 1933 | MoMA.

Please note: Any images by other photographers used on this site are accredited and are being used for personal research and educational purposes only.

Part four: Reading photographs Book review

Ways of seeing – John Berger (1972)

I have had this book for many years but thought that whilst working on reading photographs that this is the time to revisit it. It was with this purpose that I re read the book.

The book comprises of seven essays, though I reread the whole book I would like to focus on the first chapter where many of the ideas presented have been taken from a previous essay “The work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” by German critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin.

Berger proposes that “The relation between what we see and what we know is never settled” (Berger, 1972, p7) as the way that we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe. So seeing is not just mechanically reacting to stimuli:

  • We chose what we look at
  • Can only see what is within our field of vision
  • Never just look at one thing
  • We look at the relation between things and ourselves (p9)
  • We are aware that we too are visible

He describes images as man-made objects that have been reproduced but detached from the place and time they were seen. Photographs are not accurate records as “the photographer’s way of seeing is reflected in his choice of subject” (Berger, 1972, p10). The photographer has selected “that sight from an infinity of other possible sights” (Berger, 1972p 10), though we know the object is affected by much more than this.

I have learnt that images were first taken to make up for something that was absent, rather like portraiture I guess, it was only later that the influence of the image maker on the subject was recognised. Berger also explains how images are beset by other assumptions when presented as works of art, concerning beauty, truth, genius, civilisation, form, status and so on. He suggests that these assumptions are often historical and may mystify our vision. In terms of paintings he suggests that it is the social and moral values that we hold that affect the way we see, rather that the painters skills.

Never having been an artist I found Berger’s explanation of how the understanding of perspective has altered historically. The original Renaissance convention of perspective was that everything was centred on the eye of the beholder, the single eye was the centre of the world with everything converging on the eye. There was no reciprocal vision, the visible world was arranged just for the spectator, just a God was the centre of the world, it was as if everything converged on the human eye. Apparently it was after the invention of cameras that the contradiction that spectators unlike God could not be in many places at the same time and that there must be reciprocal vision. The camera could change its perspective, and unlike paintings could separate time passing from the visual experience so that what you see is totally dependent on where you were when, so is relative to a person’s position in time and space. Berger asserts that “The camera changed the way men saw” (Berger, 1972).

This was taken into paintings, the cubists in particular presented views from all points around an object. Neither had I realised that the camera also changed the way in which historical paintings were seen. I hadn’t thought that originally paintings were unique due to the place that they were situated as they were integral to the design of their building. However with the invention of the camera where a painting could be reproduced and placed elsewhere they could take on different meanings divorced from their original context and placed in another. Reproduction can also transform meaning when paintings are partially reproduced and not shown in their entirety.

Berger summarises how visual art has moved from existing in sacred preserves, then a variety physical preserves and later particular social preserves in particular those of the ruling classes. Of course now reproduction has removed art from these preserves which he suggests may render them “ephemeral, ubiquitous, insubstantial, available, valueless, free” (Berger, 1972). He concludes in chapter one that the authority of the art of the past is lost and in its place is “a language of images” (Berger, 1972) where what matters is who uses it for what and that visual art has become a political issue.

A revisit of this text was really useful at this point in my learning as it widens my increasing understanding of how photographs are read.

References:

Berger, J (1972) Ways of seeing. London. Penguin group.

Benjamin, W. (n,d) The work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Found in (1970) Illuminations. Cape. London

Part four: Reading photographs Book Review

How to Read a Photograph (Jeffrey, 2009)

In the foreword Max Kozloff discusses the history of photography and how photographs are seen as secondary sources by general historians but as primary sources by historians of photography. He points out that photographs can be used as evidence of “vanished material conditions, ideals, cultures and epochs(Kozloff, 2009), whilst it may also be used to express feelings, so being both discursive and figurative. As he says the difficult part is how to move on from a description of the contents of a photograph to an account that makes sense of it:

The visual facts convey a material reality of their time; as they’re composed and framed, they reflect a narrative desire of their time” (Jeffrey, 2009).

He believes that Jeffrey addressees this in his interpretations of the photographs in this book, as well as the biography of the artist, the psychological relations implied in the frame and through this work develops meaning for the photographer’s visualisation.

In the book Jeffrey explores the work of 69 photographers in 384 photographers with the images arranged roughly in the history of photography, divided by The Great War, World War Two and The Farm Security Administration photographers.

I have selected three photographers to give an overview of how Jeffrey analyses photographs.

Children fetching milk (Robert Doisneau, 1932)

chn milk

 (Pinterest, 2017).

Again he gives the pertinent points of the artist’s biography; his perceptive portraits of Parisians, his background in lithography and his work photographing for advertising Renaults. This picture shows his awareness of acute observation (Their clothes, their class, the shop name) and clever composition as well as his sensitivity to the human condition that the artist would have accumulated in his work.

This analysis is less insightful for me than some of the others in the book, though there are many like this in the book that are simple biography combined with observation.

Shoe making irons (Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1936)

shoe making

(PhotoPedagogy, 2017)

For this photograph he gives the biography of the artist, in particular his preference for purist photography and his objective manner often obscuring the contexts of his subjects. He also gives the context to the photograph, the Fagus shoe making factory not far from where he was freelancing. Jeffery assumes that he was asked to do some publicity photographs for the factory  of equipment, but the image eventually ended up in Die Welt ist schon (The world is beautiful); possibly as a symbol of contemporary regimentation. Apparently in the 1920s Renger-Patzsch was interested in forces like the German expressionist (1910-14), though he associated it with stillness, heightened alertness, the moment before the strike.

Jeffrey’s analysis does provide me with a context for the image and a possible motive as well as the possible philosophy behind it.

Tomatsu Shomei (Memory of defeat 2 Ruins of Toyokawa naval dockyard, Aichi prefecture, 1959)

toatsu

(SFMOMA, 2017)

Jeffrey describes Tomatsu as a symbolist and a materialist as well as a history artist. He worked for a periodical where each issue was devoted to a single subject and everything was expressed through images replacing language; this was in contrast apparently to Europeans hat thought that images should be supported by texts. Jefferey’s interpretation of the picture knowing this, is that this wall of corrugated iron peppered with shrapnel with the light behind it appears like the night sky lit by gunfire. He suggests that “Those defunct meters in the foreground stand in contrast to the liveliness of the cosmos beyond” (Jeffrey, 2009).

This analysis is more insightful giving us his thoughts about the purpose and possible thinking behind the image that matches with the background and philosophy of the artist as well as the context.

Conclusion

The book is perhaps more an exploration and history of the 69 photographers than explicit ideas about how to read a photograph, however the book has introduced me to new photographers. Certainly I gained more generally from his analyses of photographers that were new to me, like the last two of my three selected than those that were not. Is this just because they closed gaps in my knowledge rather than that they were better analyses?

My learning points:

When reading photographs

  • My aim should be to move on from a description of the contents of a photograph to an account that makes sense of it
  • I should find the psychological relations implied
  • Look for the photographer’s motive
  • Know the photographers philosophy
  • I will have to make some assumptions

 References

Jeffrey, I. (2009). How to read a photograph. New York: Abrams.

Kozloff, M (2009) in Jeffrey, I. (2009). How to read a photograph. New York: Abrams.

Pinterest. (2017) French touch. [online] Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/288723026082257843/ [Accessed 27 Jun. 2017]Plus.google.com, 2017)

PhotoPedagogy. (2017). The World is Beautiful. [online] Available at: http://www.photopedagogy.com/the-world-is-beautiful.html [Accessed 27 Jun. 2017].

SFMOMA. (2017). Shomei Tomatsu. [online] Available at: https://www.sfmoma.org/artist/Shomei_Tomatsu [Accessed 27 Jun. 2017].

Please note: Any images by other photographers used on this site are accredited and are being used for personal research and educational purposes only.

 

Part four: Reading photographs Exhibition visit

The Radical Eye. Modernist  photography from the Sir Elton John collection. Tate Modern November to May 2017

The Sir Elton John Photography Collection is one of the largest privately owned collections in the world (8000 works), ranging from the beginning of the 20th century to today. Its focus is “modernist photography”, from the objective clarity of modernist portraits to experimental darkroom manipulations and abstractions. It enables the viewer to see from the Bauhaus, the social commitment of early documentary photography and the imaginative surrealism how the ways in which the world was seen through photography changed. The exhibition is divided into five parts: portraits, experiments, documents, bodies and objects.

For the purpose of where I am in my OCA learning currently I will focus mainly on the portraits and documents section and detail the others at more appropriate times in my learning journey. I will say however that I was stunned by the breadth of his collection and the numerous and varied images of historical importance that are in this one collection. The curator of the exhibition Jane Jackson interviewed Sir Elton John Elton John to discuss his collection and the importance of photography in his life. He talks of how surprised he was to find that photographers could achieve things that he thought only painters could do, such as distortions, rayographs and light abstractions; he says that “for me photography is a journey of discovery” (Baker et al., n.d.), giving him pleasure and in an artistic way increasing his wellbeing.

Portraits

The portraits show a range of technical and psychological styles, from Man Ray’s portraits of the surrealist artists and thinkers, to Edward Steichen’s Gloria Swanson, to Alfred Stieglitz’s Georgia O’Keeffe and to Tina Modotti’s studies of Edward Weston. I am going to comment on those that impacted on me the most as I viewed them.

There were many interesting self- portraits, of which one that is still imprinted on me is Herbert Bayer’s self-portrait (“Humanly Impossible”, 1932).

Bayer

(Collections.vam.ac.uk, 2017) 

I really could not work out at first how this image of a man with an arm truncated arm was achieved. Then I realised it was a montage, in fact this is the original montage. Sir Elton John asks whether the image is about Bayer or about Nazi Germany in the 1930s.

weegee.jpg

 (Monroe et al., 2017)

This self-portrait by Arthur Fellig (Weegee) circa 1955 is technically interesting; it was probably achieved using distorting mirrors and double exposures putting two negatives together as faint repetitions of the image can be seen especially around his left eye.

I found Man Ray’s “Self-portrait in bathrobe” (1929) somewhat at odds with his other work in the collection; In contrast to the solarisations, rayographs and the glamourized portraits of others it is strangely ordinary and realistic. It is quite a contrast to his celebrated “Glass tears” (1932) which was a photograph that again led me to ask how he did it; apparently it was a mannequin with the glass affixed to it.

may ray bathrobe

 (My Favorite Arts, 2017)

I found many of the portraits taken in the 1920’s stiff and posed and generally disliked then. However you cannot help but admire Edward Steichen’s “Gloria Swanson” (1924). Sir Elton John describes it as “perfect and has such a tactile look that it seems like you could actually touch the lace” (Baker et al., n.d.); he also alludes to the hidden meaning of this silent actress behind the veil. It is direct, haunting and alluring, extremely 3 dimensional.

Steichen gloria swanson

 (Iconic Photos, 2017)

I was drawn to Brassai’s “A costume for two” (1931) with two men sharing a suit, probably still posed but full of tension, life and possibilities.

Brassai

 (Anon, 2017)

I admired the Irving Penn series of Portraits posed in corners, in particular Noel Coward (1948) and Duke Ellington (1948).

            irving penn n coward.jpg               Irving Penn duke E            (New.liveauctioneers.com, 2017)                   (Pinterest, 2017)

He used parts of a left over set from a commercial shoot, and made portraits of writers, artists, musicians, politicians and other celebrities. They were asked to position themselves in a small corner and having viewed some of the others in the series since it is interesting how their personalities were revealed as they reacted to the claustrophobic limits of the setting. Penn said that “limiting the subjects movements seemed to relieve me of part of the problem of holding onto them” (text accompanying exhibition portraits).

Portraits of photographers are always interesting. Tina Modotti’s “Edward Western with his camera” (1923) where the perspective that she used juxtaposes his head with the cameras, as if she was comparing the human eye and the mechanical world; the camera’s lens appears to dominate.

Edward-Weston

 (Photographyicon.com, 2017)

Documents

In the 1930s photographers enabled viewers to see some of the less palatable aspects of society, marrying creative appeal to gain viewers trust in their visual records. They combine historical evidence, propaganda and the appeal of art.

The documentary photographs that interested me the most were the portraits, in particular the depression era photography which is distinct from the celebrity studio portraits and self-portraits that I’ve illustrated above. These portraits are scientific documents of social types.

It was a privilege to see “Migrant mother” (Dorothea Lange 1936) first hand. This is an iconic timeless image of the hardship of a woman and her seven children who’d sold the tyres from her car for food and living on wild birds caught by the children. It was taken at a camp for seasonal agricultural workers when she was working for the Farm Security Administration as part of a team of photographers documenting the impact of federal programs in improving rural conditions. Of the 160,000 images taken for the Resettlement Administration, Migrant Mother has become the most iconic picture of the Depression.  Lange said when photographing that it needed her total attention, Sir Elton John points out of the “photographs she took the pain in them- it just grabs you…It’s an exhausting photograph (Baker et al, n.d), and not so much that this is such a sad photograph, as that it is a resignation of this woman’s suffering.

dorthea_lange_.jpg

 (Migrant Mother and Migrant Mother, 2017)

Lange’s The damage is already done ( 1936) left a bigger impression on me probably as unlike Migrant Mother, it was the first time I had seen it, this portrait also reaches out to you and has a story all of its own which as a viewer I wanted to know more about. Though the portrait is titled “The damaged child” on the back of Sir Elton John’s print Lange has written “The damage is already done”. This child shot against a harsh tin background, exudes determination and steely character even though she is grimy, grubby, in ragged clothing and has a black eye. She is not flinching in front of the camera and looks older than her years. Maybe it is possible that she will rise above any damage done?

damaged child.jpg

 (The Museum of Modern Art, 2017)

Another Lange image “White angel bread line” (1933) also struck me as particularly poignant as the migrant man with tin cup depressingly leans on fence behind a queue. I think it’s the way she’s captured his look of grim determination that arrests me.

This the first time also that I had seen any Walker Evans photography and it had an equally strong impact on me. Floyd Burroughs (1936) an Albania tenant farmer taken with a shallow depth of field extracts him from his start background. It is his look of ease but resignation which stops me in my tracks. He was known for finding dignity in ordinary lives and this photograph illustrates this.

floyd burroughs

(The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2017)

Outside of portraits there were two other images in the documents section that particularly interested me. The first is Helen Levitt’s images of children at play in New York in 1939. As I understand it the Leica camera revolutionised street photography, with its range of film speeds it was able to capture movement and difficult lighting. This image shows both.

helen levitt

(Laurencemillergallery.com, 2017)

She began as an art teacher seeking to document children’s street chalk drawings and expanded from there. She associated with Walker Evans on the late 1930s though her street photography was much rawer and more playful than his.

Robert frank was an improvisational street photographer and this image showcases this. I was struck by this photograph as the technical quality appears to be prior to that time but his candid composition is of more of the 1940/50s.

robert_frank

(Christies.com, 2017)

Conclusions:

Whilst many of the portraits in this collection were artists, writers, musicians or celebrities, I was able to see from the portrait work in particular how from the early 20th century photography moved from not being seen as art to the artists pushing the conventions of portraiture, and the period covered by this exhibition is certainly crucial. This period in particular with its growth to include documentary, surrealist, realist, fashion, and celebrity, brought a harmony between technique and subject. Sir Elton John believes that there’s not a painted portrait that is better than a photographic portrait. I will look more closely at painted portraits to see whether agree with his analysis.

References:

Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: http:///doyle.com/auctions/16bp01-rare-books-autographs-photographs/catalogue/406-brassai-1899-1984-un-costume-pour [Accessed 23 Jun. 2017].

Baker, S., Mavlian, S., Harbin, N. and John, E. (n.d.). The radical eye.

Christies.com. (2017). ROBERT FRANK (B. 1924) , Paris, 1949. [online] Available at: http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/robert-frank-b-1924-paris-1949-5544483-details.aspx [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].

Collections.vam.ac.uk. (2017). Humanly Impossible | Bayer, Herbert | V&A Search the Collections. [online] Available at: http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O128502/humanly-impossible-photograph-bayer-herbert/ [Accessed 23 Jun. 2017].

Ades, D (nd) Instument of a new vision: photography in the first machine age. In: Baker, S., Mavlian, S., Harbin, N. and John, E. (n.d.). The radical eye.

Iconic Photos. (2017). Gloria Swanson by Edward Steichen. [online] Available at: https://iconicphotos.org/2009/10/05/gloria-swanson-by-edward-steichen/ [Accessed 23 Jun. 2017].

Laurencemillergallery.com. (2017). Helen Levitt – Artists – Laurence Miller Gallery. [online] Available at: http://www.laurencemillergallery.com/artists/helen-levitt?view=slider#3 [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].

Migrant Mother, 1. and Migrant Mother, &. (2017). Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936, Dorothea Lange | Artspace.com. [online] Artspace. Available at: https://www.artspace.com/dorothea_lange/migrant_mother_nipomo_california [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].

Monroe, M., Taylor, E., Kennedy, J., II, E., Lennon, J., McCartney, P., Loren, S., Presley, E., Kennedy, J. and Warhol, A. (2017). Weegee Self-Distortion. [online] Getty Images. Available at: http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/distorted-self-portrait-of-american-photographer-weegee-mid-news-photo/520809084#distorted-selfportrait-of-american-photographer-weegee-mid-twentieth-picture-id520809084 [Accessed 23 Jun. 2017].

My Favorite Arts. (2017). Self Portrait in Bathrobe by Man Ray. [online] Available at: https://theartstack.com/artist/man-ray/self-portrai-1 [Accessed 23 Jun. 2017].

New.liveauctioneers.com. (2017). online] Available at: https://new.liveauctioneers.com/item/33437626_irving-penn-noel-coward-gravure [Accessed 23 Jun. 2017].

Pinterest. (2017). Irving Penn – Corner Portraits 1948. [online] Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/309341068143875769/ [Accessed 23 Jun. 2017].

Photographyicon.com. (2017). Master Of Photography: Edward Weston | Icon Photography School. [online] Available at: https://photographyicon.com/edward-weston/ [Accessed 23 Jun. 2017].

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum. (2017). Walker Evans | [Floyd Burroughs, Hale County, Alabama] | The Met. [online] Available at: http://metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/275843 [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].

The Museum of Modern Art. (2017). Dorothea Lange. Damaged Child, Shacktown, Elm Grove, Oklahoma. 1936 | MoMA. [online] Available at: https://www.moma.org/collection/works/56493 [Accessed 24 Jun. 2017].

Please note: Any images by other photographers used on this site are accredited and are being used for personal research and educational purposes only.

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOOK REVIEW: the Camera i – Photographic self-portraits from the Audrey and Sydney Irmas collection

BOOK REVIEW

The camera I – Photographic self-portraits from the Audrey and Sydney Irmas collection

The book consists of over 140 self-portraits from the nineteenth century until 1988. The photographs are from the collection of Audrey and Sidney Irmas.

In his introductory essay, Robert Sobieszek “Otherselves in photographic Self-Portraiture” meditates on the meaning and significance of self-portraiture. He suggests that as the artist and the subject are the same in self-portraiture the dynamics of viewing, interpreting and representing involve self-reflection at many levels. Interesting he asserts that:

to achieve an honest and convincing representation of the self invariably embodies the realisation that the inner and outer are ultimately distinct, that there are at least two selves, one accessible and another hidden, and that the “I” in self-portraiture is truly comprehending an “other.”(Sobieszek, 1994).

The photographer Richard Avelon said that every portrait is a form of acting or performance and of course the self can be constructed “The self is a project, something to be built” (Susan Sontag, 1978). But self-portraits are revealing “charts of the most personal sort usually done in quiet complicity with the self” (Sobieszek, 1994).

Sobieszek explains that self-portraiture is in three parts: delineation, distortion and disguise. The delineation as the self-portrait basically records the artist on a surface level. However the artist will have altered the surface view in some way and the challenge is seeing beneath the surface. Some self-portraits don’t use the face or even the artists body, Walker Lee Evans represents himself as a shadow, Lee Friedlander as a shadow on the back of a woman (1966).

lee Lee Friedlander, 1966 (Tfaoi.com, 2017)

Others distort their face or their bodies such as Bernice Abbott (1945) in a mirror reflection,

1945_berewnice-abbott_self-portrait-distortion_c (Photographie au Féminin, des femmes photographes, 2017).

Or as Bruce Nauman (1970) does with his own body.

a 1970 by Bruce Nauman born 1941 (Tate.org.uk., 2017).

Fracturing and multiplying the self-image are other ways of constructing the self. Anton Stankowski presents his face in a spiralling image (1937).

StankowskiAC1992_197_117 (Lacma.org, 2017)

Sobeiszek suggests that in distorting their normal look “an inner state of mind or interior agitation may be suggested” (Sobieszek, 1994).

Herbert Bayer‘s self-portrait “Humanly impossible” (1932) which I saw the original photomontage at the Radical Eye exhibition of Sir Elton John’s photographic collection, is an amazing manipulation of photography and just fascinated me.

herbert-bayer-self-portrait (Bayer, 2017).

Henri Cartier Bression offers a self-portrait which is a fraction of his body, his side, pelvis and foot (1933), as do many other artists.

Using mirrors and reflections are other techniques employed by photographers to distort or disguise themselves in a self-portrait.

dieter

The collection of images in this book helped me to see a wide picture of self-portraits by photographers. However each one seems to give further evidence to the idea that I came across when initially researching, Trish Morrissey, Francesca Woodman, Nikki S Lee and later Gillian Wearing and Claude Cahun that we all have multiple selves. It is this that I shall take into my Assignment 3: putting yourself in the picture.

References

Bayer, H. (2017). Herbert Bayer Auction Results – Herbert Bayer on artnet. [online] Artnet.com. Available at: http://www.artnet.com/artists/herbert-bayer/past-auction-results/28 [Accessed 19 Apr. 2017].

Lacma.org. (2017). Imagining the Modern Self: Photographs from the Audrey and Sydney Irmas Collection | LACMA. [online] Available at: http://www.lacma.org/art/installation/imagining-modern-self-photographs-audrey-and-sydney-irmas-collection [Accessed 19 Apr. 2017].

Photographie au Féminin, des femmes photographes – Photography in the Feminine, womens photographers. (2017). A – Photographie au Féminin, des femmes photographes – Photography in the Feminine, womens photographers. [online] Available at: http://photographieaufeminin.over-blog.com/pages/A-1933627.html [Accessed 19 Apr. 2017].

Pinterest. (2017). Dieter Appelt – Autoportrait (1978) (Everything and). [online] Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/466615211365531994/ [Accessed 19 Apr. 2017].

Pinterest. (2017). killerbeesting* — Robert Doisneau – Self Portrait, 1953. [online] Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/391813236303839543/ [Accessed 19 Apr. 2017].

Sobieszak and Irmas (1994). The camera i. 1st ed. Los Angeles: Los Angeles county museum of art.

Sobieszek, R (1994) “Otherselves in photographic Self-Portraiture” in: Sobieszek and Irmas (1994). The camera i. 1st ed. Los Angeles: Los Angeles county museum of art.

Sontag, S (1978) Under the sign of Saturn. New York. Vintage books.

Tate.org.uk. (2017). Self-portrait. [online] Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/learn/online-resources/glossary/s/self-portrait [Accessed 19 Apr. 2017].

Tfaoi.com. (2017). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: http://www.tfaoi.com/am/16am/16am1.jpg [Accessed 19 Apr. 2017].

Please note: Any images by other photographers used on this site are accredited and are being used for personal research and educational purposes only

EXHIBITION: BEHIND THE MASK, ANOTHER MASK

Gillian Wearing and Claude Cahun: Behind the mask, another mask. National Portrait Gallery (Visited 1.4.17)

The exhibition is part of the “I am me?” season of displays and events exploring art gender and identity at the National Portrait Gallery. It brings together two photographers, of different eras, Claude Cahun (1894-1954) and Gillian Wearing (b1963). They both have a fascination with self-portraits and use self-images to explore themes around identity and gender and often play these out through masquerade and performance.

The starting point to the exhibition was Cahun’s series “I am in training” (1927) where she blurred gender distinctions, dressed as a weightlifter but with painted lips and love hearts on her cheeks.

cahun wieghtlifter (Johnson, 2017)

Wearing has responded to Cahun’s image with “Me as Cahun holding a mask of my face” (2012), where she represents herself both as Cahun and as an artist; holding a mask of her own face and wearing a mask of Cahun’s face over her own.

wearing as cahun.jpg (200percentmag, 2017).

Cahun’s image makes me feel uncomfortable as her male costume with items such as stuck on nipples on her top, are at odds with each other; I guess this is the effect she desired. Wearing’s image is softer and more playful as she shows she can take on another identity (female).

The first part of the exhibition shows Cahun and Wearing’s early self-portraits:

In their youth they were both highly conscious of their own self-images and used the camera to begin with experimenting with their many different guises.

Cahun was born Lucy Schwob and transitioned from young woman to gender neutral. With her life-long partner Suzanne Malherbe they adopted gender neutral names, Claude Cahun and Marcel Moore. There are many self-portraits of Cahun: as a young girl with wild thick hair splayed out as if on a hospital bed, possibly referring to her periods of ill health and anorexia, in a turban, in an oriental setting, reading and so on. In the picture below she sits on granite rocks with hair arranged as a boy (1915-17)

Cahun early (Queerculturalcenter.org, 2017).

 Her self-portraits gradually become even more gender neutral, one with a shaven head shirt and braces another with a towel arranged as a Greek robe with bronzed skin, another in profile wearing a corduroy jacket possibly a recreation of a profile portrait of her father and below dressed as a dandy (1921-22).

cahun dandy (Hudson, 2017)

“Masculine? Feminine?

It depends on the situation.

Neuter is the only gender that suits me”

(Claude Cahun 1930, written on the exhibition wall).

Her early work is very narcissistic although obviously focusing on how gender represents identity, I’m not sure if she was expressing a wider issue than her own identity.

Gillian Wearing’s “My Polaroid years” are early self-portraits about 250 shots, in which she used makeshift props and backgrounds to reveal everyday life. Her mood ranges from the self-consciously performative to the ordinary and every day. She began taking the Polaroid’s as a project to examine her own age progression rather than an exhibition material and said when she viewed them objectively it was as though they were portraits of someone else

 “In a way they became anthropological images because I was distancing myself from being an artist taking the photographs…I was doing something as a photographer, but in a very unphotographic way

(Wearing from the exhibition wall, 2017)

Viewing them myself was like looking at her selfies over a period of time, unlike Cahun’s early self-portraits I don’t see any wider issues being addressed.  However as they were taken for herself rather than an audience then I don’t think they can be called self-indulgent. Both Cahun and Wearing certainly seemed to lose their inhibitions through performance.

However I did find her Me:me self-referential photograph below very interesting, conceived in the 1990s she appears to be looking at a magazine about her herself; is she referencing her multiple selves as the self-portrait repeats itself and disappears into infinity? Though possibly if it was to reference her multiple selves each image would have been different?

wearing me me.jpg (FAD Magazine, 2017)

Later works

“You always feel that you are the mask to some degree

(Wearing, 2012 from exhibition wall)

Masks became central to her practice. In 1994 she encouraged sitters in masks to confess all on video “Confess all on video. Don’t worry, you’ll be in disguise. Intrigued? Call Gillian.

 Then in 2014 she reconstructed herself at 21 in a photograph from 1984 to represent her artistic life and life in a bed sit in a tableau evidence of interest in Dali and surrealism with a mask of her younger self over her face.

wearing self portrait hobbies.jpg (Royalacademy.org.uk, 2017).

Initially she used prosthetic masks with crudely cut out eyes, which I find disturbing:

wearing.jpg Secrets and Lies, 2009© Gillian Wearing (Skidmore, 2017).

In this image she poses with her head and shoulders turned as in a historical pose.

wearing cut out Self portrait of me in mask 2011.  Hudson, 2017)

Cahun similarly had a fascination with masks and masquerades “Under this mask, another mask” (1930) so she that could adopt an alter ego or other personality. Cahun obliterates her eyes whilst wearing always looks at the viewer. Cahun’s self-portrait below (1928) as a masked figure in cloak decorated with masks is apparently a visualisation of her belief that she was made up of multiple self’s.

JS1227cahun and masks (Hudson, 2017)

Both artists were interested in transcending time, and shared concerns about the passage of time. Wearing’s photograph appears blurred on a clock face “Me as a clock” (1990). Her “Rock n’ roll 70s” wallpaper uses forensic artists and her own technical work to create impressions of how she might look aged effects of plastic surgery with her changing hairstyles and dress influenced by Warhol works.

She also reconstructed a picture of the photographer Robert Mapplethorpe ”Me as Mapplethorpe” (2009) wearing a mask of him just before his death in 1988, she tried to ensure her eyes held the same psychological expression as his, showing inner turbulence but still very much alive.

mapplethorpe (Royal Academy, 2017).

Both artists focus on their identities, though Cahun on gender whilst Wearing explores her identity more in relation to others whatever their gender. Cahun’s “Studies for a keepsake” (1925) where her disembodied head floats in different poses like an animal in a bell jar but with painted lips and shoulder length hair, shows her trapped by her female identity.

My conclusions:

  • I think they are both using their work to explore themselves as individuals (Cahun) and in relation to others (Wearing); sometimes using disguises or performance to investigate their ideas.
  • They are both unafraid to express themselves through their photography.
  • Their viewpoints are subjectively driven from their position in their worlds, as they analysis themselves, so their work is self-exploratory.
  • They are both using self-portraiture to question identity and wearing in particular how it can fluctuate widely.

 My learning points

  • Self-portraiture may be less than comfortable (for me) but it could be useful to for self-exploration.
  • I should embrace assignment 3 “Putting yourself in the picture” to explore my own identity.
  • Self-portraiture is not necessarily narcissistic but could be therapeutic and enlightening.

 References

FAD Magazine. (2017). Gillian Wearing and Claude Cahun: Behind the mask, another mask at National Portrait Gallery – FAD Magazine. [online] Available at: http://fadmagazine.com/2017/04/07/__trashed-9/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2017].

Hudson, M (2017) “Gillian Wearing And Claude Cahun: Behind The Mask, Another Mask, National Portrait Gallery, Review”. The Telegraph. N.p., 2017. Web. 7 Apr. 2017.

Johnson, S. (2017). Claude Cahun: A Very Curious Spirit. [online] AnOther. Available at: http://www.anothermag.com/art-photography/7358/claude-cahun-a-very-curious-spirit [Accessed 16 Apr. 2017].

Queerculturalcenter.org. (2017). Acting Out: Claude Cahun and Marcel Moore. [online] Available at: http://www.queerculturalcenter.org/Pages/Tirza/TirzaEssay1.html [Accessed 16 Apr. 2017].

Royalacademy.org.uk. (2017). Behind the mask: Gillian Wearing RA | Blog | Royal Academy of Arts. [online] Available at: http://www.royalacademy.org.uk/article/gillian-wearing-vincent-award [Accessed 16 Apr. 2017].

Skidmore, M. (2017). The Many Selves of Gillian Wearing. [online] AnOther. Available at: http://www.anothermag.com/art-photography/7906/the-many-selves-of-gillian-wearing [Accessed 15 Apr. 2017].

200percentmag. (2017). Gillian Wearing interview. [online] Available at: http://200-percent.com/gillian-wearing-2/ [Accessed 16 Apr. 2017].

Please note: Any images by other photographers used on this site are accredited and are being used for personal research and educational purposes only.

EXHIBITION: TAYLOR WESSING 2016 PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT AWARD

Taylor Wessing 2016 Photographic Portrait award – International Traditional and contemporary photography

I visited this exhibition with a group of fellow OCA students as an “unofficial” study day.

The works in final exhibition reflect the inventiveness and the breadth of their subject matter. The 57  portraits were chosen from 4303 photos. The judges Criteria was: the impact upon viewer and effective use of subject matter.

These are the photographs that most impacted upon me the most.

Frances – Josh Redman 2016

josh redman (Npg.org.uk, 2017)

Redman was previously a sculptor and this shows in this image. He photographed nude sitters in identitical lighting and backgrounds to enhance his understanding of portraiture. This image which combines elegance and spontaneous expressions seems to embody the spirit of the subject. Frances is eighty three and appears strong rather than fragile as you would expect at that age, proud of her skin and body aged and lined. Her skin appears warm and alive. He has captured her from an unusual angle looking upwards to her, perhaps this is part of what gives her the power in the image. I am in awe of this powerful image.

Sleeping worker 2015 – Etienne Malapert. The figure on the grass could be mistaken for dead with the cloth positioned over its head, however the title indicates otherwise. I was drawn by its ambiguity but lingered to enjoy the dappled lighting and subtle colours.

Rosanna and Maria Grazia – Fabio Boni 2016. Portraits of volunteers of Italian Red Cross have been photographed against a vibrant red Background which was chosen to suggest vigor and strength. Again it is the choice and effect of the background that attracts me.

John McCrea – Phil Sharp 2015. He normally takes publicity head shots for aspiring actors. He has used a very shallow depth of field which puts just the left eye and the chin in focus The subject has a cigarette in his mouth as a performance pose and gazes pensively in front of a black background, it is both a nostalgic and contemporary image.

Margo – Rachel Molina 2016

margo.jpg (LensCulture, 2017).

This image was noted for its sensitive use of focus. The sharp focus falls on the elderly lady’s face and the caring hand resting on her shoulder. The possible loneliness shown on her face is softened by her physical connection to a person out of shot. The vulnerability and caring suggested here is what interests me.

John Anastazia – Tom Merilion 2015 from the series Tanzanian street children

tom merrilon (Npg.org.uk, 2017)

These photographs were commissioned by a Tanzanian charity supporting vulnerable children. They were all posed against a white background which was used to disconnect them from the streets that they live on. This definitely focuses the eyes on small details such as his Chelsea football glove and his burnt arm.

Nigel Farage smoking a cigar – Charlie Clift 2016

farage-taylor-wessing (T and Luke,2017)

Photographed in a Belgravia cigar club he has encapsulated his public persona, buoyant, cheeky, and larger than life. The shallow depth of field leaves just his face in focus, arms/hands in front not in focus, though this is obvious in the large gallery print, not so obvious when viewing in a smaller format on line. Once again a plain background, this time blue, definitely enhances the subject and the details.

Boy Scout 2016 Karl Ohiri and Riikka Kassinen

ohiri and kassinen.jpg (Npg.org.uk, 2017)

The scout was watched from a distance as they were setting up a studio for another purpose in Lagos Nigeria. He was invited to stand in front if their bold yellow background which contrasts brilliantly against his dark skin and green uniform. As you look closely at the portraits you notice the small details that are enhanced, such as his fraying scarf and oversized uniform which contribute to his vulnerability. I think it’s the effect of the background against the subject and his clothing that attracts me, as it seems to bring the details in a sharp focus.

Simon callow – Andy Lo Po

ALP.-simon-callow-telegraph-561x748 (Wyattclarkejones, 2017)

This causes me to comment as it shows the actor i a reflective mood rather than as his usual exuberant character. It is obviously a good shot but I don’t like it as it doesn’t reflect the character that I know.

Angela – Peter Mosely 2016 from the series Dermis

Angela (Npg.org.uk, 2, 2017).

This is another of my favourites from the exhibition, It was achieved by photogravure a mechanical printing process where the image is etched onto a plate for printing. This shows her skin in forensic detail and stresses the physicality of her body. The appeal for me in this portrait is the brightness of her eyes staring piercingly and confidently at you.

John Harrison 36852 days old – Paul Stuart 2015

paul-stuart-john-harrison-36852-days-old (Doggett, 2017)

His face emerges from dark background with the strong directional lighting which draws attention to the lines on his face and flecks of silver in his grey hair. The depth of field is shallow with the focus on his forehead lines and the nearest eye which emphasises his alertness and curiosity.

Pink bobble hat “looking back to sea”- Katie Barlow 2016 Series in refugee transport bus Lesbos.  She has framed each of her refugee by the bus windows and curtains subjects and photographed through the dirty opaque glass. The framing and slight blurring enhances the atmosphere of uncertainty and mess (metaphorical).

Wing – Fabio Forin 2016. The subject is throwing his arms up in the air in a carefree way, head up, eyes closed, with the horizon line exactly intersecting with the waist of his trousers. I think it’s his graceful pose which it at odds to the cloudy dull scene behind him that intrigues me.

The “In Focus” display show cases innovative approach to portraiture:

Christina de Middel b 1975 who tackles conventional subject matter through unorthodox means.

middel daniel.jpg Daniel.(Npg.org.uk, 2017)

Her Series The Gentlemen’s Club men, shot in Rio de Janeiro Brazil, men who visit prostitutes were paid to talk about why they visited; the accompanying texts reveal the men’s thoughts and motivations. The images of the four men portray them in a manner which fits each of their stories. For instance Luis who visits because he is lonely is photographed with his back against the wall staring away in the half light. Whereas Daniel who visits for pleasure and fun without commitment, poses looking strong relaxed confident and in control, whilst photographed lying on a bed. She has protected the documentary value of the photographs by not manipulating them in any way, preferring to manipulate the reality in front of her whilst she is shooting. She believes that generally “photography has done a bad job in explaining what prostitution is about and has deliberately- for some obvious reasons- hidden the other half of the story” (McClure, 2016).

My learning points

  • I could see the benefits that those who had also sculpted or used other mediums could bring to their portrait photography, such as Josh Redman.
  • I can now really appreciate the importance of the background in a portrait and the way that the choice of colour can enhance the subject, most especially when it is plain: Fabio Boni, Tom Merilion, Ohiri and Kassinen.
  • I appreciate the impact of using a shallow depth of field to focus on a small detail or part of a face, Phil Sharp. Rachel Molina, and Charlie Clift.
  • The importance of careful use of lighting and perspective, Josh Redman and Paul Stuart.
  • The impact of thoughtful framing, Katie Barlow to convey a message. The variety of ways that the photographer can capture the spirit of the subject, “The Gentlemen’s club”, “John Harrison”, “Angela”, “Nigel Farage”, “John McCrea” and “Frances”.

References:

 Lens Culture, N. (2017). Fleeting Truths: Thoughts on Portrait Photography – Interview with Head of Photographs Phillip Prodger | LensCulture. [online] LensCulture. Available at: https://www.lensculture.com/articles/national-portrait-gallery-fleeting-truths-thoughts-on-portrait-photography [Accessed 28 Mar. 2017].

Mary Doggett’s Learning Log. (2017). paul-stuart-john-harrison-36852-days-old. [online] Available at: https://mary513255cn.wordpress.com/2017/01/15/exhibition-taylor-wessing-photographic-portrait-prize-2016/paul-stuart-john-harrison-36852-days-old/ [Accessed 28 Mar. 2017].

 McClure (2016) in Taylor Wessing Photographic Portrait Prize 16, National Portrait gallery Publications, London.

Npg.org.uk. 2 (2017). Weekend Workshop: Photogravure Printing – National Portrait Gallery. [online] Available at: http://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/event-root/january/weekend-workshop-28012017.php [Accessed 28 Mar. 2017].

 Npg.org.uk. (2017). Taylor Wessing photographic Portrait Prize 2016 – Exhibition. [online] Available at: http://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/twppp-2016/exhibition/ [Accessed 28 Mar. 2017].

T and Luke, B. (2017).Taylor Wessing Portrait Prize 2016, review: Farage an unwelcome shock. [online] Evening Standard. Available at: http://www.standard.co.uk/goingout/arts/taylor-wessing-portrait-prize-2016-exhibition-review-nigel-farage-an-unwelcome-shock-a3400591.html [Accessed 28 Mar. 2017].

Wyattclarkejones.com. (2017). Andy Lo Po, Taylor Wessing Award – Wyatt Clarke & Jones. [online] Available at: http://wyattclarkejones.com/andy-lo-po-taylor-wessing-award/ [Accessed 28 Mar. 2017].

Please note: Any images by other photographers used on this site are accredited and are being used for personal research and educational purposes only.